## A Conjecture on Collections of Subsets## Philip J. Erdelsky## September 3, 2002 |

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**NOTE: A search of the Internet finally revealed that this conjecture
is true and is known as Sperner's Theorem.**

Here's a problem in combinatorics that has bugged me for many years. Perhaps a combinatoricist can solve it at once. I couldn't.

Consider a finite set S of N objects. A *collection without inclusion* is
a collection C of subsets of S such that no subset in the collection is a
proper subset of any other subset in the collection.

One kind of collection without inclusion is the collection of all single-element subsets of S. Another is the collection of all two-element subsets. However, there are many, many others.

Here is the conjecture: The collection of N/2-element subsets contains at least as many subsets as any other collection without inclusion. Here N/2 is rounded either up or down if N is odd. It doesn't make any difference, because the size of the collection is the same in either case.

Brute-force testing by computer can verify this conjecture only for very small
values of N. The number of subsets is P = 2^{N}, and the number of collections
of subsets is 2^{P}, which gets very large very fast!

The application that gave rise to this conjecture is probably obsolete by now, but here it is. There used to be something called a PROM (programmable read-only memory). It was manufactured containing all zeros. By using a special machine that selectively burned out internal connections, the user could change any zero into a one, but not vice-versa. That was called "burning" the PROM.

Now suppose each word of the PROM contains N bits. If you code the information so exactly N/2 bits of each word are changed to ones, the information cannot be changed and remain valid. If there is a collection without inclusion larger than the collection of all N/2-element subsets, there is a more efficient way to do this.

An Urdu translation of this article is available at mobilemall.pk/blog/subsets